Tadasana / Mountain pose (Basic standing pose)
Stand with the feet together and the legs straight. Lift the arches of the feet and the kneecaps. Gently pull in the lower abdomin. Point the crown of the head to the ceiling directly above. The shoulders should fall to the sides neither forward nor back. There should be a gap of about three or four inches between the shoulder blades. Let the arms relax hanging at the sides. Keep the eyes gently focused directly ahead. Relax the tongue and throat muscles.
Tadasana is the basic posture from which all standing postures begin and return to. It is similar to the anatomical position except the palms of the hands face medially. It should achieve correct standing lordosis that is carried into the appropriate movements of other standing postures.
The ideal posture in standing should when viewed from the side should have specific points that are aligned with an ‘ideal plumb line’ that is a line that is dropped through the body along the centre of gravity. The line should pass approximately through the ear lobe, the acromion process, midway through the trunk, through the bodies of the lumbar vertebrae, the greater trochanter of the femur, slightly anterior to the mid line of the knee and sightly anterior to the lateral malleolus. Weight bearing segments of the body should be aligned so that the line of gravity passes through these segments within a given range. The line of gravity should intersect with the base of support close to the geometric centre of the base of support in order to maintain stability.
Weight bearing joints should maintain an easy, balanced extension without strain or tension. There is an optimum level of energy expenditure for maintenance of good alignment. Too little energy will result in depending on ligaments of weight bearing joints rather than using muscles to resist gravity. Excess energy expenditure indicates poor neuromuscular coordination. Good posture should allow mechanically efficient function of joints, minimise friction and balance opposing ligaments and soft tissue in order to minimum wear and tear on joints. Adequate development of anti‑gravity muscles should enable them to resist the pull of gravity and maintain good alignment without excessive tension and effort. Flexibility in structures of weight bearing joints should permit good alignment without strain. The overall posture should facilitate the functioning of the internal organs.